Thought Leadership

A Novel Secondary Energy Design for Electric Vehicles revised

24 Apr, 2023


Electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming increasingly popular as a more sustainable transportation option. While EVs have found success in luxury sedan and SUV market, it is yet to become a commercially viable option for mass market. The main constraint for this is the cost of EV battery. If EV batteries are optimized for low cost, OEMs face several other challenges such as limited range, low power etc. To address these issues, secondary power generation via wheel rotation has been proposed as a solution in this paper. This technology captures and stores the rotational energy of the wheels in a secondary battery unit, reducing reliance on the primary battery, thus increasing the operating range of EVs while being cost competitive. Here in this paper, we explain the design and implementation of secondary energy generation system that is optimized for maximum efficiency and performance, ensuring compatibility with primary battery, minimizing the potential weight increase and maintenance costs.


Low-cost electric vehicles (EVs) have the potential to revolutionize the transportation industry by making clean and efficient transportation accessible to a wider range of people. However, there are several challenges that need to be overcome before low-cost EVs can become a reality.

Firstly, battery size and technology are key factors in the cost of an EV. Larger batteries are typically more expensive than smaller ones. To keep the cost of low-cost EVs down, manufacturers often use smaller batteries, which can limit the range and power of the vehicle. However, smaller batteries also have limitations, such as shorter range and need frequent charging. This can be a barrier to adoption for people who require a vehicle with a longer range or who need to travel longer distances frequently. Finding the optimal battery size for a low-cost EV is a balancing act between cost, range, and performance. Manufacturers must balance the cost of the battery with the desired range and performance of the vehicle. Battery size can also impact the weight and size of the vehicle. Larger batteries can add significant weight, which can impact the vehicle’s handling and acceleration. Smaller batteries may be lighter, but they may not provide enough power to meet the performance requirements of the vehicle.

The size of the battery also affects the charging time of the vehicle. Smaller batteries can be charged more quickly, but they may not provide enough range to make longer trips. Larger batteries take longer to charge, which can be inconvenient for some users.

Improving battery technology, such as increasing the energy density of batteries or secondary energy generation through wheels, could help reduce the size and weight of the battery while maintaining or increasing its range and power. However, developing these advancements in battery technology is a significant challenge that requires extensive research and development. In this paper we give a brief overview of novel secondary energy generation design for EVs.

Proposed Solution:

Regenerative braking is a system that is used in electric and hybrid vehicles to convert the kinetic energy of the vehicle into electrical energy that can be stored in the battery. The system works by utilizing an electric motor or generator to slow down the vehicle when the brakes are applied. When the brakes are engaged, the electric motor or generator starts functioning as a generator, which produces electrical energy that is transferred to the battery.

The regenerative braking system uses a controller that determines the amount of braking force required based on the vehicle’s speed and the amount of energy required to charge the battery. The controller then sends a signal to the electric motor or generator to generate the necessary amount of electrical energy.

The system’s components include the electric motor or generator, the controller, the battery, and the brakes. The electric motor or generator and the controller work together to convert the kinetic energy of the vehicle into electrical energy, which is then stored in the battery. The brakes are used to slow down the vehicle, and the controller ensures that the appropriate amount of energy is produced to charge the battery without causing excessive wear and tear on the braking system. Regenerative braking systems can improve the efficiency of electric and hybrid vehicles by reducing the energy lost during braking. This system can increase the vehicle’s range and reduce the amount of energy required to charge the battery, resulting in improved fuel economy and reduced emissions.

In addition to the main components, the regenerative braking system also includes sensors that monitor the vehicle’s speed, acceleration, and brake position. These sensors provide information to the controller, which adjusts the amount of energy produced by the electric motor or generator to match the vehicle’s needs.

Moreover, regenerative braking systems can also improve the vehicle’s overall braking performance, as they can provide additional stopping power when needed. This is because the regenerative braking system can work in conjunction with the conventional braking system to slow down the vehicle, providing a smoother and more controlled braking experience.

Furthermore, the regenerative braking system can help extend the life of the brakes by reducing the amount of friction required to stop the vehicle. As the electric motor or generator slows down the vehicle, less friction is required from the brake pads to bring the vehicle to a stop, resulting in less wear and tear on the brake components. Overall, the regenerative braking system is an essential component of electric and hybrid vehicles, providing improved efficiency, performance, and braking capabilities.

In the above Fig 1.0 shows the architecture of the secondary generation of power source and storing in secondary battery.

Design considerations for Secondary Power Generation system:

The regenerative braking system should be designed to maximize energy recovery and minimize losses. This can be achieved by selecting efficient components and optimizing the system’s control algorithms. should be designed to work seamlessly with the battery and charging system. This requires careful consideration of the battery’s capacity and charging characteristics, as well as the charging infrastructure available. The weight of the regenerative braking system should be minimized to reduce the overall weight of the vehicle. This can be achieved by selecting lightweight materials and optimizing the system’s layout.


In summary, using secondary power generation from wheel rotation can be a promising solution to address the challenges faced by EVs. This technology can reduce the dependence on the primary battery, improve the range and safety of EVs, and reduce their environmental impact. Incorporating this technology can further expand the efforts to create affordable and efficient electric vehicles. With the right design and implementation, secondary power generation has the potential to transform the future of EVs.

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